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Behavioural trends vs. circumcision trends: Since the mid 1980s, western circumcision advocates have used a surface knowledge of African cultures to make an epidemiological association between high HIV rates and “lack of circumcision” – a pattern at odds with USAID statistics and 11 of the 13 relevant Demographic Health Surveys at the start of VMMC roll-out in 2008 (see Garenne, 2008). What do locals say about this alleged association? Is this a pattern they have seen in their communities?